Wednesday, August 9, 2017

Discussions of History

Much of my life revolves around history. I get to teach World History to 7th grade students at my local Junior High School in Oregon. I have written articles, lesson plans, and assisted with research at the New Netherland institute in New York. For the past year and a half, I have served as the director of the East Linn Historical Museum. The last several months have brought opportunities to participate in multiple presentations to the public about the local history of the area I live in.

After attending some of my discussions, a local radio station invited me to do three live history shows at their station. The beginning show is about the Santiam Wagon Road, the first passageway over the Cascade Mountains from the Willamette Valley in the 1800s. It is filled with stories of pioneers, exploration, roadhouses, and an automobile race.

Next up is a brief summary about the Kalapuya Tribes that resided in the Willamette Valley when pioneers began to arrive from the East Coast. Their organization, social structure, and agriculture are unique and fascinating. Details of how these tribes lived, what they ate, and the extent of their trade is also discussed.

Finally, there is a tour of the East Linn Museum which includes discussions of objects in the museum related to early schools on the area, the Civil War, medicine and other unique items.

These shows are available to listen to, simply follow the instructions listed below:

- Go to KGAL Radio (Lebanon, Oregon)
- Use the pull down menu under PROGRAMMING and select VALLEY TALK
- Choose a date:
      4/17/17 Santiam Wagon Road
      4/27/17 Kalapuya Tribes (start at around 19:45)
      5/11/17 East Linn Museum tour
- You may also click on the link below and select the dates listed above.
- Enjoy!

Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Who Cares about History?

I have to admit, I am a bit over the top when it comes to history. I teach Jr. High history, I read books about history, I teach community classes about history, I watch movies about history, I write about history, and I am the director of our local history museum. That being said, I have noted a disturbing trend leading people away from studying history. In the schools, there has always been an emphasis placed on testing and this idea continues, especially in the areas of math and reading. Sometimes middle school students who are behind in math and reading skills are removed from history classes until they reach high school. I don’t have anything against math and reading, and I understand that some view test scores as an indicator of success, test scores are linked to funding, and thus the emphasis on reading and math.

I recently read an old journal written in the late 1800s by a schoolteacher from the small town I live in. I was interested to read what school was like over 100 years ago and quickly noticed state tests were given then also. The state test topics the teacher prepared her students for in the late 1800s were Arithmetic, History and Oregon History. I was shocked at this, and the idea that students were tested over two types of history was magnificent. Why was history emphasized as a vital part of learning then, but so easily brushed aside today? I don’t have an answer. At the beginning of each school year, I am reminded that history often does not have a big fan base. I hear my students say history does not matter because it happened so long ago and everyone is dead anyway. When I hear this, I am always quick to remind my students, that this is their future as well, and they had better think about the legacy they will leave.

The filmmaker Ken Burns said, “The great arrogance of the present is to forget the intelligence of the past.” As society moves forward and improves, people sometimes discredit those who came before, thinking that somehow their predecessors lacked intelligence because they did not have our technology. However, those before us, lived with what they had and created better things as they went, just like we do today. The dates were different but the general issues are the same.

A line from a song by the Dixie Chicks reminds us, “Who do we become, without knowing where we started from?”  It is critical to understand the path taken by those before us who got us to where we are today. We have connections to the past that cannot be broken, even if we are ignorant of them; they are still a part of us. Time does not travel in straight lines, but in circles, and these circles connect to others to make patterns that are often repeated throughout history. When we can identify and understand these connections we are privy to amazing insights - ideas that can only be learned by studying history.

Discover the joy of getting to know people who lived before you. Study what they learned during their lives, how they influenced their own circles of history, and how their circle connected to other ones. The great historian David McCullough challenged us, “Because you were born into a particular era doesn’t mean it has to be the limit of your experience. Move about in time, go places. Why restrict your circle of acquaintances to only those who occupy the same stage we call the present?” (Brave Companions, 223) You don’t have to look very far to find hero from the past, common people who lived unbelievable lives. They may have only influenced a few people while they were here, but their influence can continue to inspire us today if we take the time to learn about them.  When we explore the lives of people from the past, we realize they still have lessons we can learn from, and ideas we can aspire to. Take some time to learn about people who lived before you, how they handled challenges and successes, and what they struggled to achieve. They may have lived a very long time ago but you will quickly see that they are more similar to you than you think. 

Sunday, January 1, 2017

Reading Only Three Things

I was reading a book about archeological work done in New Netherland and it mentioned a related book.  A young man, Daniel M. Tredwell, who lived in New York, wrote this additional resource. The book, “Personal Reminiscences of Men and Things on Long Island - Part One,” was published in 1912. I planned to quickly read through the book and get to the archeological parts, but once I started reading I could not stop. The perspective and insights about life in the United States during the late 1800s was riveting. Daniel's book was not written to impress anyone; it was simply a journal about what he observed while growing up. He lived at a time before kindling wood, anthracite coal, gas, friction matches, canned fruit, sewing machines, typewriters, telegraphs, mail, railroads, policemen, cigarettes, blotting paper, and steel pans. He said it was a time when “everybody was happy and content.”

One thing that interested me was the value his family placed on education. There were not a lot of literary resources where Daniel lived, and he mentioned only three things he and his family read regularly. First was the newspaper; his family received two different subscriptions each week delivered by a stage driver. One was The Long Island Telegraph and Friend of Education, and the other was The Long Island Farmer, published in Jamaica. Daniel’s family looked forward to this delivery since it was their “weekly supply of literature and information from the outside world.”
A second piece of reading the Tredwell Family enjoyed was the Farmer’s Almanac, which hung prominently in the chimney corner of their living room. They consulted this piece of literature often to: verify times of the rising and setting of the sun and moon, check tides, and predict the seasons for the coming year. The last part of the almanac had a list of chronological historic events beginning with the Garden of Eden and progressing to the current date. Additionally, the almanac included medical advice and recipes. The Tredwell family pursued scientific and historical occupations later in life and I can’t help but think this book was a major influence in those decisions.

The most interesting piece of literature the Tredwell family read was a manuscript they referred to as the “Old Farm Diary” - it came with the house they lived in. Daniel said it “had been about our house from our earliest recollection.” It was made up of approximately sixty pages, with the first and last pages missing. The faded, brown ink filled the pages and many of the corners were worn off but Daniel noted the “penmanship was a masterpiece of excellence.” The "Old Farm Diary" covered a period from 1720 - 1744 and described matters related to the farm the Tredwells lived on. The people that wrote the diary made trips to Sag Harbor and the Hamptons on horseback. About these journeys, Daniel recorded, “The[se] trips constituted a great travel in our mind at the time and we read them over and over with the utmost delight.” The people who had previously lived in the home were the Tredwell's ancestors and this manuscript was a few generations removed from them. Daniel's father recognized the neighbors and slaves mentioned on its’ pages from stories his father shared with him. After reading through this document for years, Daniel went back to look up some facts but it was gone. No one remembered the day it disappeared it was simply not there.

One idea stayed with Daniel and his siblings from reading the “Old Farm Diary.” Daniel claimed the old manuscript “made a lasting impression on our mind and our first unfledged literary efforts were made in imitation of it, and we made a resolution early in life to write a diary of the events of our lives.” Daniel’s attempts to write a journal like the one he grew up reading started out a bit patchy but his published journal ended up being two volumes and recorded his life from 1838 to 1888 - nearly fifty years.
I have thought of so many questions since contemplating Daniel’s small library. First, I am impressed with how what we read is a real influence in our lives. I am also extremely intrigued about the “Old Farm Diary.” How could it just not be there one day? What a treasure to come with a house and was this a common practice? I know people kept records in family bibles but I had never heard of a journal of a house being kept. Reading from Daniel's journal about the way people thought, what the inventions were, and how their views changed are fascinating.
So like Daniel, I hope you would take a minute each day and write about the events and thoughts about your own life. Describe your iPhone, your favorite app, how you get to work, what you think about current events, and what interests you. When someone reads it 70 years from now they will be amazed that you could even do anything with such basic technology and find it unbelievable what you worried about in your daily life. Just as I felt when I read Daniel’s words, your words will also be riveting, as your readers discover what your life was like - they won’t be able to stop reading.

Monday, November 14, 2016

A Change in Trajectory

Each day is filled with decisions, some more important than others. Sometimes we don't realize that choices we make may cause our situation to head in an entirely different direction. A tiny shift can totally change the trajectory of our lives. These pivotal decisions may be part of our daily routine, which can alter our lives and what we contribute to the world.

The musical performer Sting had one of these simple, yet life-changing experiences. As a young boy, he lived near a small port in England, in the “shadow of a shipyard.” It was a town that had built some of the largest sea going vessels in the world. For generations, the people living there did the same thing: they worked in the shipyards and struggled to make ends meet. Once an important ship was completed it was christened, and usually members of the royal family attended the celebration. On one such occasion, Sting’s small town hosted the official gathering. He had attended these events before. As usual, his mother made him wear his Sunday best and stand on the sidewalk waving the British flag in his hand. As a young boy, Sting sensed the excitement in the air and watched as the motorcade steadily approached, carrying the Queen Mother. As her vehicle drove by, Sting waved with enthusiasm and smiled. Just as he did, the Queen made eye contact with him and smiled and waved back. He said at that moment he was infected with the idea that he wanted a bigger life. One that was out of the ordinary and different from what his family had known for generations. Because he attended that one event as a young boy, Sting was introduced to an idea that altered the rest of his life. He began to think outside of the box on what he could do with his life and his trajectory changed from that day forward.

Neil deGrasse Tyson also had an experience that adjusted the direction of his life. Today Tyson is a well-known astrophysicist and the director of the Hayden Planetarium in New York. When he was first getting started as a young man from the Bronx, Tyson was interested in astronomy and applied to attend Ithaca at Cornell for his first year of study. Carl Sagan, then a successful astrophysicist, noticed Tyson’s application and invited him to spend the day with him. What an opportunity for Tyson! The two of them spent the day touring astronomy faculties, and that evening, Sagan gave Tyson the book, “The Cosmic Connection” and signed it, “to a future astronomer.” It was a cold, snowy December evening in New York when Sagan drove Tyson back to the bus station to go home. Sagan wrote his phone number on a scrap of paper and gave it to Tyson telling him to call if the bus couldn’t get through the storm. Tyson already knew that he wanted to study astronomy, but something changed during the day he spent with Carl Sagan. The kindness and interest Sagan showed Tyson, changed his idea of what kind of scientist he would be and he recognized the importance of including people in science and not just facts.

Russell Shorto is a journalist, best-selling author, and historian who had a question that changed his life. He lived in New York and routinely took his daughter to an old churchyard at St. Mark’s-in-the Bowery. It had a lawn filled with large sycamore trees, a perfect place for a young child to run and get some fresh air. Each day as his daughter played there, Shorto looked at the tombstones that filled the old churchyard. One stood out more than the others; it belonged to Peter Stuyvesant one of the leaders of the early settlement in New Netherland in the 1600s. Shorto’s mind began to question what the original settlement was like. He followed this idea, which led him to a man named Charles Gehring. Shorto learned from Gehring that where his daughter played each day was once the Dutch Colony of New Netherland and Peter Stuyvesant had been one of the directors there. This meeting with Gehring led Shorto to an obsession to learn all he could about the colony and he eventually wrote, “The Island at the Center of the World” about this location.  Shorto also became actively involved in the New Netherland Institute (whose director is Charles Gehring), and has taught the public about New Netherland ever since. Shorto’s solitary question led him to an area of history he knew little about and now he successfully shares that knowledge with the world.

I could go on with examples of people who have made a drastic change in their lives because of one small decision. In many of these instances the people ended up being successful in their individual lives, and then sharing their newfound knowledge with all who would pay attention. Their change in trajectory ended up being a chain reaction, which led others to alter their paths also. As you go about your normal day be aware of questions that come to your mind or ideas that you have. Keep them bouncing around in your head and see if they eventually become one of those pivotal decisions which will send you in an entirely different direction.

Monday, October 3, 2016

Ultra light Hikers from the Past

If you follow trends in backpacking you are aware that ultra light backpacking is what many hikers are trying to achieve today. To accomplish this, hikers bring the lightest possible backpack equipment so they can journey longer and faster. As a result, backpacking equipment is made from lighter materials and hikers often use tricks to take weight from their packs such as drilling holes in the handles of their forks and making stoves out of soda cans. Today people work extremely hard and go to great expenses to earn the designation of being an ultra light backpacker. Looking to the past, it is interesting to see that people moved about the world as ultra light travelers without quite so much expense, planning, and preparation as we do today.

One example is Otzi the Iceman who was an ultra light traveler from Europe. He crossed the Austrian Alps but was killed on his journey by other travelers in the area. In 1991, his 5,300-year-old body was discovered on a glacier by some hikers. Otzi’s gear included a few tools and weapons, a piece of fungus on a leather string (his first aid kit) and two birch bark containers. One of these containers was blackened inside and had the remains of items that had been burnt. This was Otzi’s charcoal, which he carried around with him so he could easily start fires when he set up camp each night. Otzi traveled across extremely difficult terrain with only a few items carried on his belt and across his back because that is all he really needed to survive. The only expense for these items was the time and effort he put into crafting them.

One of my favorite ultra light explorers is Ernest Shackleton. His story is one too amazing to be believed. He and 27 men left for Antarctica the day after World War I began. Their ship, The Endurance, was trapped and later crushed in the Antarctic ice and they were without any communication from the outside world because of the war. To rescue his men, Shackleton and his crew sailed to Elephant Island where he left most them under the care of his trusted friend, Frank Wilde. While these men were left at Elephant Island, Shackleton and five of the men sailed 800 miles across the ocean to South Georgia Island. They went there to find a whaling station to acquire a ship large enough to rescue the men left on Elephant Island. However, once they reach South Georgia Island, they landed on the opposite side of where the whaling station was located because they had survived a hurricane the previous night in their small boat. After setting up a makeshift camp, Shackleton and two of the five men, left at 2:00 a.m. and made a 36-hour journey across the island to reach help. They traveled ultra light through crevasses, up and down mountain ranges, and endured extreme cold because they were too exhausted to carry much and were nearly out of supplies. In the end, they repelled down through an icy waterfall to get to the area where the whaling village was. On this short but grueling journey Shackleton and his two companions only brought a pickax, a small stove, a logbook, a rope, and some powdered milk. This incredible ultra light adventure has not gone unnoticed by climbers and adventures today. A few teams have attempted to humbly recreate the lifesaving journey that Shackleton and his men took. They were successful but had to use a lot of climbing equipment to make it.

Another traveler, John Muir always comes to mind when thinking about ultra light backpacking. When he took off across the country, he put bread, tea, sugar, and a tin cup in a blanket and set off. Muir mainly ate bread on his hikes, which he dried so it would not get moldy. He never brought a gun on his wilderness excursions and did not hunt so he often hiked with a calorie deficit. Today the trail that John Muir often hiked is 210 miles long and has an elevation change of 80,000 feet. This would not be a journey to be weighed down with too many supplies, however Muir’s provisions seem a bit scanty.

In today’s busy world, looking to the past gives us critical insights as to how we could be more minimalist and ultra light in our lives. Many people from long ago did not plan out carefully what they would have with them on their daily journeys, they simply used what was available to them and they survived. Technology and inventions are wonderful but sometimes the best option is to grab what you have, put it in a blanket and enjoy an adventure.

Thursday, September 10, 2015

10 Reasons why the Dutch and Their Bicycles are a Thing

            When people hear the word “Dutch” they think of windmills, wooden shoes, tulips and of course bicycles. In the Netherlands, people of all ages are on bicycles and it’s not just an activity for the fit, young guys or a cycling subculture. Riding bikes starts very early in the Netherlands, so are Dutch infant’s first memories of handlebars and the backseats of bicycles? Possibly, because in the Netherlands biking is not a singular event, it is just how it is – no matter what the distance, time of day or the amount of rain that is falling.

10. A Common Mode of Transportation
            A quick look at the geography of the Netherlands makes it obvious that the land is nearly entirely flat. And for those of us who have pushed and grunted to get up a hill on our bikes, an even path is quite inviting. Take a look at their neighbor, Germany. This is also a relatively flat country but biking never took off in Germany like it did in the Netherlands. A lot of this had to do with the attitude of the people. While the Germans saw cycling as a way for the common laborer to get around, the Dutch viewed biking as a reflection of themselves: hardworking, determined and ambitious.
            If you live in a car-centered country and don’t quite believe the universal use of bicycles in the Netherlands, take a look at the city of Amsterdam, its population is approximately 800,000 and it has about 880,000 bikes.

9. A Safe Way to Travel
            Since children in the Netherlands start riding bikes before they are old enough to go to school, they experience what it is like to be an active part of traffic. In the Netherlands, those driving cars do not usually steer dangerously close to bicyclists or honk at them for being on the road because at one time or another, they have been riding a bicycle in traffic so they have empathy for those on bicycles. To increase the safety of this mode of travel, elementary students have classes in school each year to help them understand traffic laws and how to maneuver in traffic.
            Biking is not only physically safe in the Netherlands, but it increases the health and well being of the Dutch. If you are on a bike you are spared from being sneezed on in the subway. In addition, the Dutch are physically active every single day. This cuts down substantially on the amount spent on health care in the Netherlands because people generally stay healthy longer. It is not uncommon to see a 4-year-old riding alongside an eighty-four year old.

8. It’s a way of life
            In the Netherlands, the bicycle is the best way to get from Point A to Point B whether that point is school, work or running errands. Instead of getting in a car to pick up a gallon of milk, the Dutch ride their bike - that is just how it is in the Netherlands. Approximately 70% of all journeys (7.5 km or less) are made on bikes in the Netherlands. Many Dutch businesses even have company bicycles instead of company cars.
            Since bicycles are how the Dutch get about, the traffic scene doesn’t change once it starts to rain or it gets colder. Many children in other parts of the world seem to think they will melt if they get rained on. As a result, when the rains come, they are driven to school in cars while their bikes are abandoned until the sun comes out again. The Dutch would never think of doing this. In the Netherlands, an added bonus of riding a bike to school is that student’s alertness lasts throughout most of the morning because of the exercise they have had getting to school.

7. Dutch Bicycles and Dutch Cyclists
            Commuting looks different with the Dutch and their 13 million bicyclists. First of all, they view spandex shorts and helmets as unnecessary items for biking. The idea of not wearing a bike helmet would make many cyclists, outside of the Netherlands cringe. However, consider the fact that most of Dutch transportation is done on bicycles, which is a slower way to move than riding alongside a ton of speeding metal. The cars that maneuver the streets of the Netherlands move much more slowly and give bicycles the right of way.
            The Dutch have a few items to keep them comfortable when they ride. For the wet months, they have specially designed pants that will keep the top parts of their legs dry. They also have bicycle ponchos that cover the rider and extend out to cover the handlebars as well. But be careful what you do with the puddle of water that accumulates on the poncho between you and the handlebars - there is an art to this.
            Also, Dutch bicycles are different because they are usually not geared and often come with back pedal brakes. A warning to those visiting the Netherlands, don’t try to use your non-existent handbrakes to stop or you might find yourself in a pile of bicycles and cyclists.

6. Some Bike Paths provide Solar Power
            A recent innovation in the Netherlands are their solar powered bicycle paths. SolaRoad builds these paths and they are made up of sections of cement with solar panels built into them. The power from these bicycle roads is channeled to the national energy grid. The panels are skid proof, and strong enough to hold up under the daily traffic of thousands of bicyclists. One section of the solar path (230 feet) produces enough energy to provide 2-3 homes with power for an entire year. It makes one wonder if the Dutch even have a carbon footprint?

5. Bicycles during World War I
            During World War I, the Netherlands remained neutral. They suffered numerous shortages during this time but their country remained a peaceful place. During this time of scarcity, bicycles were used in the Netherlands because of their reliability as a way of getting from place to place. They were also very affordable during a time when the people did not have a lot of extra money. So during World War I bicycling caught on in the Netherlands, and the Dutch began to build an infrastructure to support all the bicycles that wheeled through the cities each day. As a result, bicycles soon had their own system of signs, paths and bridges that were separate from cars.

4. Continuing Infrastructure
            The Dutch continued to support the modest and unassuming ways of the bicycle as they built the infrastructures of their cities. In the 1920s, a law was made that each house built, had to have a shed with rear access to store bicycles. So while Americans were building sizeable garages at the front of their homes for their gas-powered vehicles, the Dutch were building tiny, little sheds out back to wheel their bicycles in each evening after work.
            During the 1970s the Dutch continued to build their roads and cities around a bike-centered way of life, they even made their historic sites and city centers inaccessible to motor vehicles. Once the infrastructure was set up, the maintenance of these roads were much less expensive than countries that used their streets for cars.

3. A Different Kind of Rush Hour
            Rush hour traffic in the Netherlands is a walk in the park compared to big city traffic jams that last for hours in large American cities. In comparison, it is necessary to describe rush hour in the Netherlands so it can even be recognized as such. For example, during rush hour in Amsterdam, a city of over 800,000, the streets are filled with hundreds of people in casual clothes riding their bicycles home from work. To someone who is new to the Netherlands, you may hold your breath as you watch hundreds of bicycles weave in and out of one another’s path. Although it may seem a bit chaotic, the traffic is continually moving and no one is left endlessly waiting in line for their turn to move through traffic. During this time, some cyclists are stopped at the store to buy groceries, while other ride side-by-side talking to each other. Cycling in the Netherlands is a very natural, safe and, relaxed way to get about.

2. Bicycle Warfare
            During World War I while the Germans fought and built up machinery to inflict destruction and death upon their enemies, the Dutch stayed out of the war. Then in May of 1940, during World War II, things changed when the Germans attacked the Netherlands and this gave the Dutch no other choice but to join the war. Since the Dutch had lived a peaceful existence during World War I, they hadn’t put any effort towards building weapons of any kind, like the Germans had. So after the Dutch joined World War II, some of them went to war on their bicycles armed with guns with bayonets on the end. You have to really give the Dutch credit for bravery here. Imagine going up against a tank and machine guns on a bicycle with a bayonet – go Dutch people!

1. The Healthy Highway
            One of the newest bicycle roads built in the Netherlands is the Greenport Bikeway, also called the Healthy Highway. It is a bicycle road that is good for the environment, the people, and the animals in the area. It helps the environment because 15,000 people use it each day to get to work on their bicycles, cutting down on their carbon footprint. It is helpful to the people of the Netherlands because they have a more efficient way to get to work and will be healthier and happier for continuing to commute to work on their bicycles.
            It is helpful to some of the animals in the area because it is a bat friendly path. How many times have you considered whether or not you are using a bat friendly path as you go to work? The path uses “bat-friendly” lighting and the Dutch have planted 500 fruit trees along this bicycle road to help the bats and other mammals. These trees provide shade for people who want to stop and visit on their way home from work, and fruit for hungry bikers and for the bats. The trees are also helpful to badgers and other small mammals that ramble around at night and eat the fruit that has fallen to the ground from the trees.

So remember, the next time you need to grab something from the store, leave your car behind; pump up your bicycle tires, take a deep breath and bike like the Dutch.


I found this topic interesting because my husband and I commute together to work everyday on our bicycles. There are no huge crowds of cyclist as there are in the Netherlands when we ride; it’s just the two of us with a lot of people hurrying to work in their cars.

As an extra addition to this post I wanted to share a video of what bicycling looks like in the Netherlands. It is impressive to watch the unbelievable amount of Dutch bicyclists weaving in and out of one another’s path. Enjoy!